The DiscoverOrg acquisition of NeverBounce was in the works for six months and began with DiscoverOrg’s search for a verification vendor that could better handle large scale processing. “It’s a core competency we wanted to own,” said DiscoverOrg CEO Henry Schuck.
DiscoverOrg is retaining the NeverBounce team of fifteen, but shuttering its smaller Salt Lake City office with employees being relocated to Cleveland. The acquisition was announced on March 5th.
NeverBounce 2018 revenue was $4 million and included both B2B and B2C marketing file enhancement revenues. Terms of the deal were not disclosed.
will continue as both a standalone offering and be integrated into the merged
DiscoverOrg / Zoominfo platform.
The combined platform is planned for launch in five months.
“When we made the ZoomInfo acquisitions, the promise was that this would strengthen differentiators around the quality of data we deliver. The NeverBounce acquisition is a very clear incremental addition to that value. It helps us enhance the quality of information we deliver immediately.”
DiscoverOrg President Katie Bullard
you count Zoominfo’s September acquisition of Datanyze,
DiscoverOrg has acquired three companies in the past six months. The
transaction doubled the company headcount to around 1,000 employees. But
Schuck isn’t closing the door on acquisitions saying that he will be
opportunistic in his approach.
“There are a lot of companies in our space that we follow,” he said. “If the opportunity is right, we have been quick to do acquisitions. There’s a big opportunity for consolidation in our industry so that customers don’t have to go to 19 different vendors for data and data cleansing needs.”
NeverBounce claims a 99.9% email delivery rate and a 97% SLA. Emails are classified into five categories: Valid, Invalid, Accept All, Unknown and Disposable. The service confirms that domains are live, flags duplicates, and repairs syntax prior to processing.
“A big part of our value proposition to customers is we provide the highest quality data in the marketplace. A big part of that is ensuring the email addresses are deliverable and high accuracy.”
DiscoverOrg CEO Henry Schuck
Integration will be a significant operational issue for DiscoverOrg. While they previously acquired iProfile and RainKing, those were similar companies, so the integration was focused on quickly reprocessing their datasets through DiscoverOrg editorial validation and migrating customers to the DiscoverOrg platform. The recent acquisitions – NeverBounce, Zoominfo, and Datanyze, which was acquired by Zoominfo in September – are complementary assets so merging applications present a greater level of technical risk than their previous acquisitions. However, email validation is already part of ongoing data quality processes at Zoominfo and DiscoverOrg, so the execution risk associated with NeverBounce is lower than Zoominfo and Datanyze.
is a logical acquisition following Zoominfo as it allows them to build email
hygiene services into Zoominfo and DiscoverOrg while reducing the cost of email
validation across Zoominfo and DiscoverOrg’s set of contact profiles with
emails. Over the past few years, the sales intelligence vendors have been
building out B2B marketing services including email verification, data
enrichment, and ICP / TAM analysis. As DiscoverOrg has long positioned
itself as the highest quality source of executive contacts, NeverBounce helps
burnish that positioning as they expand their contact coverage twenty-fold.
“While finding net new buyers is always going to be vital to sales and marketing efforts, it has become equally as important to manage, update and cleanse existing data that is going stale sitting in CRM and marketing automation systems. Our partnership with NeverBounce makes solving both of these challenges easier for our customers.”
DiscoverOrg President Katie Bullard
we announced the combination of DiscoverOrg and ZoomInfo, we promised to
deliver on the B2B data trifecta: the best, bar-none, quality, quantity, and
depth, and this announcement only reinforces our quality differentiator in the
market,” said DiscoverOrg CEO Henry Schuck. “We are now embedding
NeverBounce’s email verification tools directly into our data and research
team’s processes to lower the email bounce rates in both platforms AND over the
next few months, we will integrate it into several of our customer-facing tools,
including our data enrichment platform, Enrich.”
will continue as a standalone data hygiene offering. DiscoverOrg and
Zoominfo may purchase NeverBounce services at a discounted rate. NeverBounce
list pricing begins at 0.8 cents on 10,000 processed emails and drops to 0.3
cents on one million records. Marketers can pay for each list or purchase
credits in bulk. There is no charge for de-duplication services. There
is also no charge for manual list reviews kicked out by the platform to their
10,000-record file is processed in two to ten minutes with 100,000 records
processed in 45. NeverBounce claims bank-level security and European
privacy support (GDPR and the EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S Privacy Shield Frameworks).
thrilled to partner with DiscoverOrg to extend our mission to improve the
success of go-to-market efforts,” says Brad Owen, NeverBounce CEO. “Every
bad email address can cost an organization up to $11 per record, which equates
to millions of wasted dollars for many companies. Together, DiscoverOrg
and NeverBounce are committed to ending the curse of bad sales and marketing
NeverBounce has 100,000 clients and was established in 2014. The acquisition price was not disclosed. NeverBounce has fifteen employees and will retain its office in Cleveland with Salt Lake City employees being relocated.
Update (3/5/19 5:30 PM EST) Amended the last sentence about employees.
The acquisition moves DiscoverOrg into the number two position in the Sales and Marketing Intelligence space with $230 million in joint revenues. Only LinkedIn Sales Navigator has a larger market share.
leaked the deal on January 25th indicating that “Zebra” was a direct
competitor. According to Debtwire, DiscoverOrg was “pitching its unrated
buyout loan package on strong recent growth and a story that the whole will be
greater than the sum of its parts, said five buysiders familiar with the
deal. Meanwhile, levering up the capital structure draws attention to the
borrower’s ability to meet synergy projections – which could crimp its free
cash flow, especially amid an ambitious technology integration plan, they
indicated that the acquisition was priced at $800 million, a three-fold
increase from Great Hill’s summer 2017 acquisition price of $240 million for
Zoominfo. Debtwire also indicated an FY18 management adjusted EBITDA of
$62.7 million for DiscoverOrg and $17.7 for Zoominfo.
Revenue growth for both companies is strong. DiscoverOrg has made the Inc. 5000 list for eight straight years and Zoominfo for the past four years. Debtwire indicated revenue growth figures of 26% and 30% over the past two years for DiscoverOrg with revenue hitting $152 million in 2018. Zoominfo has grown at an even faster pace over the past two years with growth rates of 63% and 44%. Thus, Zoominfo revenue grew from $39 million in 2016 to $91 million last year.
Based on the
Debtwire revenue numbers for 2018 and historical revenue figures from the Inc.
5000 list, DiscoverOrg had a seven-year CAGR of 61% and Zoominfo of 34%. Zoominfo’s
growth rate is mostly organic while DiscoverOrg’s organic seven-year CAGR,
after adjusting for RainKing revenue, is around 53%.
firms are strongly complementary. Zoominfo provides the deepest set of
B2B emails and direct dials with content mined from email signature
blocks. DiscoverOrg offers deep technology profiles (technographics and
project plans) alongside human verified bios (skills, responsibilities,
education, work histories, emails, direct dials, and social links), org charts,
and company profiles. DiscoverOrg’s human verification supports a 95%
data quality SLA for its contacts. Zoominfo’s Datanyze acquisition
provides DiscoverOrg with additional NLP tools for determining products and
vendors alongside market share analytics tools for marketing and competitive
data is rapidly changing and your data platforms must be built to adapt,” said
Zoominfo CEO Derek Schoettle in September. “ZoomInfo has the largest,
most complete data set of companies and contacts and a goal to enable our
customers to automate, process, curate, and present the data on-demand and in
real-time. Delivering industry-leading technographics, the Datanyze technology
will be a significant addition to help us deliver the right data, at the right
time, to the right person.”
deep, research-verified, actionable insights coming together with ZoomInfo’s
comprehensive coverage of 100M business professionals is an unrivaled combo,”
said the firm. “We each employ different, but highly advanced
technologies and tools to gather, cleanse, and maintain at an unparalleled
“To effectively capitalize on growth opportunities, companies of all sizes need accurate firmographic, technographic, contact, and intent data. Combined, DiscoverOrg and ZoomInfo deliver the trifecta: B2B data of the highest quality, quantity, and depth.”
DiscoverOrg CEO Henry Schuck
past few years, sales intelligence has moved from a standalone browser research
service for sales reps to an integrated workflow solution tied into CRMs,
Marketing Automation Platforms, Sales Engagement Platforms, Chrome Browsers,
and email. DiscoverOrg has been at the forefront of these integrations
with a broad set of platform connectors. CEO Henry Schuck emphasized
these workflow tools during the announcement. “High-quality data is the
fundamental go-to-market requirement for growth. In the near future, CRM and
marketing automation systems will be defined not by their empty-box
capabilities – but by the data that is housed inside them.”
complementary, the combined companies remain weak with respect to deep company
profiles. DiscoverOrg recently added family trees, but they are to the
subsidiary level, not branches. They also lack public company financials,
US and UK filings, SWOTs, and industry research.
DiscoverOrg acquired rival RainKing in August 2017, CEO Henry Schuck stated the
following goal, “The path to rapid revenue growth is paved with highly
accurate, actionable, and predictive sales and marketing data, and the
combination of RainKing and DiscoverOrg means that our joint customer base has
access to an extraordinary portfolio of data, contextual buying insights, and
predictive intelligence. We are building a company that is to sales and
marketing intelligence what Salesforce is to CRM.”
vision was updated today:
“Every sales and marketing team will have a go-to-market operating system that identifies the prospects that should be engaged every day, week, and month based on buying signals and intent data collected in a multitude of different ways. Even better, they have deep insights on the buyers who are making the purchase decisions with accurate contact, org chart, technographic, and firmographic data. It’s all at their fingertips and it’s all served to them dynamically – wherever they are working.”
stated that support, service, and sales for all products will continue.
Both platforms will be sold for the next six to twelve months “with highly
coordinated sales and marketing efforts to ensure customers realize the most
value from the platform(s) that best serve their needs.” In March, joint
customers will have a light integration between the two platforms followed
quickly by DiscoverOrg customer access to Zoominfo company and contact data.
combine the best of both platforms over the next year, customers will have the
best, bar-none, B2B intelligence platform -the highest quality data with the
broadest coverage and deepest actionable insights,” said the firm.
company has 15,000 active customers and 120,000 active users, with the Zoominfo
acquisition trebling the customer count.
stated that there are no plans to shutter any of Zoominfo’s locations and that
hiring will continue for all Zoominfo offices. Zoominfo has more than
doubled its staff over the past year with headcount spread over six locations:
Waltham (MA), San Mateo (CA), Grand Rapid (MI), St Petersburg (Russia), Kazan
(Russia), and Ra’anana (Israel). Zoominfo moved into a new headquarters
location in Waltham, MA just last month. The lease provides space for up
to 450 employees. Globally, DiscoverOrg has over 1,000 employees.
DiscoverOrg’s investors include TA Associates, The Carlyle Group, and 22C Capital.
DiscoverOrg, which has historically focused on decisionmakers at top companies, greatly increased its company and contact coverage last week. The firm now collects data on 500,000 global companies, trebling its coverage. With respect to contacts, coverage grew five-fold to 20 million decision makers. All of the new companies are headquartered in the United States, but roughly 27% of the new contacts work outside of the United States.
expanded company and contact data has long been captured by DiscoverOrg but not
presented within their service. Thus, adding a lower tier of records
presented a problem which was solved by segregating the records into two
categories: Research Verified and Technology Generated. Research verified
profiles are collected and audited editorially. They are subject to
DiscoverOrg’s 95% data quality SLA with 96% direct dial fill rates and 98%
email fill rates. The research verified dataset spans 4.35 million
contacts across 163,000 global companies. This dataset remains their
technology generated dataset is collected, validated, deduped, and categorized
by DiscoverOrg’s platform. The dataset spans 15.5 million contacts across
319,000 additional US companies. As the dataset also includes technology
generated contacts at research-verified companies, sales and marketing can
utilize the technology-verified contacts when there are few eligible contacts
with the desired titles within the human-verified dataset. They can also
drill down into a universe of smaller companies not subject to human
“The dramatic growth of our database is due to rapid advancements in technology-enabled processes built on a decade of expertise with human-verified research. This human+technology approach has allowed us to develop unique assets for cleansing, verifying, and maintaining data that gives our customers the best advantage available: deep, accurate and complete data that fuels their growth.”
Derek Smith, DiscoverOrg Senior Vice President of Data
prospecting, human-verified and technology-verified contacts are displayed as
separate lists. When viewing contacts in a company profile, the
human-verified contacts are displayed by default, but the technology-verified
contacts are accessible if needed.
built its reputation with a human-researched and verified database of top
companies which includes org charts, real-time buying signals, sales triggers,
and technographics. The firm is now deploying “proprietary technology and
human-in-the-loop automation” to deliver “a significantly broader universe with
levels of accuracy not typically seen at these volumes.”
President Katie Bullard did not provide details on their technological
verification processes, but stated, “We have a variety of proprietary tools and
technologies that ensure the highest level of depth and quality available in
the market. Some of these include tools for retrieving and validating
direct dial phone numbers, email verification tools, and tools that parse job
descriptions to identify technologies used.”
expansion provides deeper coverage of SMBs. 94% of covered companies have
fewer than 1,000 employees and 75% have fewer than 100.
new contacts have a minimum of a corporate phone, email, title, department, and
company. Approximately 27% of the new contacts include direct dial
phones. DiscoverOrg is confident that email accuracy is above the
this launch, no other company in the industry offers the data quality and depth
that smart go-to-market motions demand, AND the data quantity to reach entire
addressable markets,” claimed DiscoverOrg.
While DiscoverOrg covers international companies in its human-verified dataset, they do not have an international office, “but we’re always considering our international strategy,” said Bullard.
DiscoverOrg, which has long emphasized technographics and contacts, expanded its company intelligence with the addition of global corporate hierarchies and private equity / venture capital funding intelligence. DiscoverOrg also expanded its contact / biographic coverage with detailed work histories, educational profiles, and North American mobile phones and personal emails.
“The traditional playbooks for B2B prospecting and corporate recruiting don’t work anymore. Today’s buyers and hires expect highly personalized outreach at the right time that cuts through the mass-produced noise we’re all inundated with. The additional data we are now delivering make it even easier for our customers to craft the right message and engage where and when they are most likely to get a response.”
DiscoverOrg CEO Henry Schuck
are color coded and available for 22,000 global companies along with their
divisions and subsidiaries. Tree nodes may be expanded and collapsed,
allowing sales reps to customize their view. Users may link to major
subsidiaries that are also contained within the DiscoverOrg company universe
while non-covered subsidiaries are grayed out. Tree nodes include logo,
location, and ownership type.
has long offered org charts highlighting contact reporting structures, but
family trees have been a gap in their service until now.
includes total funding and round details such as amounts, dates, and investors.
DiscoverOrg did not disclose the sources of their new data sets beyond saying they were licensed from “leading third-party data providers.” The new content was verified by their 250 editors and DiscoverOrg’s automated verification processes prior to being presented to clients.
DiscoverOrg continues its rapid content build out with 4.3 million human-verified contacts across 160,000 top global companies. Additional functionality around the family trees is planned for the next three months. The firm also expects to add funding data screening to their build-a-list functionality.
“Our biggest differentiator is our ability to bring together proprietary technology,automated tools, and integrations that gather data – plus a layer of human verification to ensure its accuracy.”
Katie Bullard, DiscoverOrg President.
DiscoverOrg confirmed that they are on target for their $160M end of year ARR.
Technographics, which were a relatively small segment five years ago, have grown rapidly and are in the midst of a consolidation phase. Three years ago, DiscoverOrg acquired iProfile and then picked up RainKing last August. This week, HG Data acquired London-based Pivotal iQ, Zoominfo acquired Datanyze, and DiscoverOrg rebranded.
Both acquisitions expand the scope of coverage of the acquiring firms. Zoominfo had limited technographics prior to the Datanyze deal and now holds a deeper set of technographics along with analytics and visualization tools. HG Data has expanded beyond product / vendor data to include contract and spend intelligence.
By my research, the IT sub-sector represents 18% of the sales intelligence space with DiscoverOrg in the pole position. Overall, the IT sub-sector is $170 million and it is growing faster than the overall Sales Intelligence market.
“The recent acquisition activity shows the value and appetite for technology data enrichment,” said HG Data VP of Product and Marketing Kineon Walker. “This consolidation cycle is happening as new companies continue to enter the space. As technology data continues to evolve and become more valuable to businesses of all sizes, we expect this sector to continue to grow and flourish.”
What we are seeing is the transition of technographic intelligence from a delighter five years ago to a must have content set for sales and marketing intelligence products. Ten years ago, it was contacts and SMBs that made this transition. Eight years ago it was sales triggers. Four years ago it was emails and direct dials. Now it is technographics.
Next up it may be third-party intent data and the integration of first-party visitor intelligence into more sophisticated lead scoring and prioritization.
I will be covering both acquisitions over the next few days.
North American Sales Intelligence Market Sizing Model (Excel)
The 2017 Market Size of North American Sales Intelligence Vendors. Includes vendor product features, market share, and notes. GZ Consulting Copyright 2018.
For the past few years, I have been sizing the North American Sales Intelligence Market. This is the largest of the markets as Europe and AsiaPac are more fragmented (the UK is the only other mature market).
In 2017, I estimated the market at $950 million with LinkedIn Sales Navigator as the top vendor. While new firms continue to enter, the top four vendors earn two of every three dollars in the industry. The top four concentration increased 7% last year, mostly due to the acquisitions of Avention and RainKing.
The industry grew 17% over the past year with the majority of this growth being captured by LinkedIn Sales Navigator, DiscoverOrg, and Zoominfo. TechTarget, which was off my radar in 2016, has also seen rapid growth in 2017 and 2018.
DiscoverOrg acquired RainKing at the end of August 2017 so two-thirds of its revenue was recognized as RainKing and one-third as part of DiscoverOrg. Combined, the two firms earned around $118 million least year with DiscoverOrg ending the year with a $130 million plus ARR. DiscoverOrg raked in two of every three dollars within the technology sales intelligence sub-segment.
LinkedIn holds a nearly 30% market share. It has grown rapidly while remaining under the radar of its peers as it is often used as a complementary service to other sales and marketing intelligence services.
Data.com’s 2017 revenue was stable but Dun & Bradstreet forecasted a 30% drop in 2018 (D&B is a revenue share partner on the service). I anticipate that much of this revenue will shift to other vendors in 2018 and 2019. Dun & Bradstreet is in a strong position to take much of this share, but other vendors are pushing hard to acquire Data.com clients.
Zoominfo was ahead of the other sales intelligence vendors in recognizing the value of adding marketing functionality alongside their sales tools. This has put them in a strong position for data services. They also built the deepest set of global contacts with emails and direct dials and were early to build out connectors (CRM, MAP, Sales Engagement, and Chrome).
I am making my market model available for license (See PayPal button at top) as an Excel spreadsheet. It includes revenue numbers by company along with market share, key features, and notes.
DiscoverOrg made the Inc 5000 list for the eighth straight year with three-year revenue growth of 184%. The revenue was boosted by the acquisition of RainKing last August, but the firm would have made the list even without the acquisition. Over the past six years, DiscoverOrg posted a compound average growth rate (CAGR) of 60%, growing revenue from $5.5 million in 2011 to $91.9 million in 2017.
“For 10 years, our singular focus has been on how to fuel our customers’ pipeline and revenue growth with the best B2B data available anywhere,” said Henry Schuck, DiscoverOrg CEO. “Being named to the Inc. 5000 list for the eighth consecutive year–and especially at the size and scale we are now–demonstrates our continued unwillingness to settle for anything less than excellence.”
Last year, DiscoverOrg more than doubled its database and increased its headcount by 50%. DiscoverOrg’s Annualized Recurring Revenue (ARR) was over $130 million at the end of the year, indicating the firm was in a strong position to make the list again in 2019. DiscoverOrg only recognized around $13 million in 2017 RainKing revenue over the final four months, so approximately $26 million in additional subscription revenue will hit their books in 2018.
2017 organic revenue growth was around $19 million.
“Out of the nearly seven million private companies moving the economy forward every day, only a tiny fraction have demonstrated such remarkably consistent high growth. DiscoverOrg’s eighth Inc. 5000 honor truly puts the organization in rarefied company.”
James Ledbetter, Inc. Editor-in-chief
What is even more impressive is that DiscoverOrg passed InsideView and Avention (now D&B Hoovers) in revenue with a service that focused on the technology space while the broader sales and marketing intelligence services target the technology space, business services, professional services, and financial services.
DiscoverOrg announced the next generation of its OppAlerts intent-driven technology intelligence service. The premium service now delivers ten-times as many OppAlerts as before and integrates the alerts into its Build-a List-prospecting. Only surging companies with Bombora Surge scores of at least 75 are flagged.
Surge scores are early indicators of intent to purchase based upon B2B media site activity. A 75 signifies companies in the top five to ten percent of interest in a topic as compared to their baseline level of interest in that topic. As much of the buyers’ journey takes place before purchasers contact a firm, reaching out to prospects during the early stages of the journey provides sales reps with an early movers’ advantage.
“The holy grail of the B2B marketing and sales world is to know when customers are actively researching your product or service,” said DiscoverOrg CEO Henry Schuck. “The DiscoverOrg – Bombora partnership allows our customers to know specifically what their prospects are researching and then which decision-makers to connect with, all in one place.”
DiscoverOrg switched from the Bombora firehose API, which delivered bulk raw data, to Bombora’s processed surge feed. The upgraded service allows DiscoverOrg users to identify companies with surging interest in key topics, rank companies by purchase intent, route high-intent prospects to sales reps, and synch intent data with Salesforce for key topics.
Marketers can load a ListMatch file and have it immediately enriched with OppAlerts Surge scores by selected topics. They can then filter by topic, review trends, and assess week-over-week changes in scores. As the list is loaded into their prospecting engine, marketers can further refine the list by firmographics, technographics, biographics, and recent Scoops (sales triggers). DiscoverOrg has mapped all 4,100 topics to related job functions, allowing sales and marketing reps to quickly build targeted contact lists most likely to be interested in surging topics at key accounts.
The OppAlerts Build a List view displays current and historical intent data by company. Users see the week-by-week score changes along with other surging topics at companies. Lists may be saved for ongoing monitoring within the platform or via a weekly alert. Thus, sales reps can monitor their ABM accounts and place calls when intent spikes at them.
The email alert highlights New OppAlerts, Biggest Gains, and OppAlerts by Topic.
“Bombora is the only provider of Company Surge data. Combining our insights about which businesses are more actively researching specific products and services with DiscoverOrg’s best-in-class firmographic and contact data brings the most actionable form of Intent data to B2B sales teams,” said Erik Matlick, Bombora Founder and CEO.
Pricing was not released, but the service is sold in both light and unlimited tiers. Light tiers provide up to 100 surging companies per topic per month for 12, 25, or 50 topics. Joint subscribers only pay a small fee for delivery of Bombora data from within DiscoverOrg.
DiscoverOrg has been working to build out its datasets. They now cover 3.7 million contacts across 150,000 companies.
Data Orchestration vendor Openprise expanded its Data Marketplace with the addition of seven new vendors: Dun & Bradstreet, Oceanos, DiscoverOrg, KickFire, Acxiom, Cognism and People Data Labs. The Openprise Data Marketplace is a third-party data mart which assists with “onboarding, ingesting and normalizing data” into major platforms such as Salesforce, Marketo, Eloqua, Microsoft Dynamics 365.
“Our customers benefit from having access to accurate and complete B2B marketing data – from verified account and contact data to organization charts to intent signals and buying scoops,” said Katie Bullard, DiscoverOrg Chief Growth Officer. “The depth of our data gives sales and marketers a 360-degree view of target accounts and contacts, and our integrations ensure that data is always fresh, complete and up-to-date.”
“Openprise users can now incorporate Oceanos‘ contact hygiene and provisioning solutions directly within their automated processes to improve their demand generation and Account-Based Marketing initiatives,” said Oceanos’ CEO Brian P. Hession. “Our API wraps five leading hygiene vendors into a single solution, further amplifying the benefits marketers realize.”
Openprise assists with cleaning and normalizing customer data, assesses match rates, recommends new data providers, coordinates data processing, and unifies data across systems.
John Donlon, Senior Director of Marketing Operations Strategies at SiriusDecisions, called acquiring and standardizing high quality prospect data as “one of the biggest challenges marketers face” and “critical” to implementing the SiriusDecisions Demand Unit Waterfall. “Any technology that can facilitate that will give organizations a huge leg up not just in understanding their target audience, but in driving meaningful interactions throughout the buyer’s journey.”
Openprise claims that no single data vendor can provide superior data than their platform. They also warned that a multiple vendor strategy is often ineffective due to industry content white labeling, resulting in little incremental value. “With our Multi-Vendor Enrichment Strategy Service, our customers know quantitatively how each incremental vendor’s data will improve their database and they have the processes in place to easily integrate new data in a way that conforms with their existing data policies.”
The Openprise platform supports data onboarding, data cleansing and enrichment, data unification across systems, and data delivery.