LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner raised concern about a tide of tech regulation following recent data privacy scandals. Of particular concern is the impact of removing tech company immunity for the content shared by users under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act. If the Section were removed, social networks would be forced to proactively censor posts.
if the [technology] industry were to do greater self-regulation, you’re going
to see more regulatory oversight.”
as the wide use of algorithms has provided a megaphone to misinformation and
fringe social media, regulation can have unintended consequences. “The
unintended consequences work both ways,” said Weiner. “Companies make
decisions only with the best of intentions, and there are unintended
consequences of those decisions. But from a regulatory perspective, I
think it’s the same thing.”
“You could stifle a lot of innovation. You could stifle a lot of openness. You could stifle a lot of the things that create value by virtue of changing these liability rules and laws. That is just almost a canonical example of where these unintended consequences would really proliferate. The things companies would need to do to ensure that they were protected is going to hurt the way in which people can communicate with one another.”
LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner
LinkedIn operates in China where it is subject to censorship. The firm decided to enter the market as it’s mission is to create economic opportunity globally. “The censorship issue in China is always a painful one,” he said. “It has to be navigated and managed in the context of the broader vision.” While LinkedIn is advocating for Section 230, its parent company has taken a pro-regulatory view on data privacy, calling for an American version of GDPR. Microsoft has built GDPR into the infrastructure of its platforms.
LinkedIn recently adjusted its feed algorithm to identify more salient topics instead of viral content. The goal is to encourage conversations and promote niche conversations over broad topics. The modifications place a higher premium on member interest signals.
“Our mission is to help people be more productive and
successful, and it is what drives us daily,” said Senior Director of Product
Management Pete Davies. “We strongly
believe that people need their professional communities to help them along the
way, whether that’s current or former colleagues, peers in the same industry,
or those that share similar interests or career ambitions.”
LinkedIn prioritizes posts from connections and follows along with their likes, comments, and posts. Other factors include group posts, followed hashtags, and events “all with the goal of showing you the content and conversations that you care about.” Prioritization is given to direct interactions; stated interests and experiences; and “explicit signals” such as with whom you’ve worked.
Davies provided the following tips to encourage conversation:
Post things that encourage a response. For example, if you’re posting a link, express an opinion with it.
Think about using the best type of post for the topic. Despite the rumors, the algorithm doesn’t favor any particular format. We have video, images, multi-images, text and long-form articles. More are on the way.
Use @mentions to pull other people you know into a conversation when you think they’ll have something valuable to add. Be thoughtful: only mention people that you think are likely to respond, max five is a good rule of thumb.
Engage in the conversation, respond to commenters and encourage back and forth.
Davies also recommended the use of hashtags, but no more than
three. Hashtags should be specific vs. general
(#performancemanagement vs. #management).
Finally, Davies emphasized authenticity. This is a theme that Kyle Porter, CEO of SalesLoft, keeps going back to.
“Authenticity is key: all the tips above work out better when members talk about things they truly care about, in a way that’s natural for them. Genuine conversation around real experiences spark better and deeper conversation. Better conversation, in turn, leads to stronger community and connection,” blogged Davies.
LinkedIn is now the number two social media platform by usage, advertising spend, ROI and analytics tools. Facebook remains number one. “While LinkedIn is often considered a hub for job hunters and corporate recruiters, the platform has also shifted to position itself as a marketing engine in recent years,” said Jerry Ascierto, executive editor of The Social Shake-Up Show. “The recent updates to its ad platform and UI seem to be encouraging brands to increase spend. As a result, more companies are experiencing better ROI from this network than others considered more popular and ‘fun,’ such as Instagram, Twitter and YouTube.”
LinkedIn has benefited from a native video feature that was launched last year and was recently extended to company pages.
LinkedIn’s last official member count was 546 million global professional profiles.
Microsoft Chairman John Thompson said that the LinkedIn acquisition has been “wildly successful” and that Microsoft would be “all in” on a similar deal. Of particular interest are firms that would help connect users to the Microsoft cloud.
Thomson was critical of firms that share or sell user data. “Many of them make money off ads and they have used that as kind of a leverage point,” Thomson told Bloomberg. “At Microsoft, we don’t believe in that.”
While Facebook has taken a series of hits on its sharing of member data, LinkedIn has long protected member data (for example, Sales Navigator does not permit the uploading of member information to CRMs but makes it available for display). What’s more, Microsoft has built GDPR compliance into its product line and set it as a global standard.
LinkedIn celebrated its 15th anniversary last month. “15 years ago, we launched LinkedIn in Reid Hoffman’s living room with the tagline ‘relationships matter’,” said VP of Product Strategy Allen Blue. “I’m proud to say that this mantra still rings true today in both the halls of LinkedIn and on the platform. While the world of work has evolved immensely — be it the tools and products we use, the ways we communicate, and even the jobs themselves — our need to connect with one another to be productive in our careers remains at the core of all we do.”
@Twitter now supports 280 characters, so we can be verbose. With such limits, one could almost write an essay. Still, I would prefer that they show actual characters left than display a usage dial. It doesn’t warn you about limits until you get within 20 characters. #innovation?
Twitter had doubled its capacity to 280 character tweets noting that in countries where there is less character cramming (e.g., China, Japan, Korea), there are fewer full-length messages and a higher propensity to tweet. “Twitter is about brevity,” blogged Twitter product manager Aliza Rosen and senior software engineer, Ikuhiro Ihara. “It’s what makes it such a great way to see what’s happening. Tweets get right to the point with the information or thoughts that matter. That is something we will never change.”
“Historically, 9% of Tweets in English hit the character limit. This reflects the challenge of fitting a thought into a Tweet, often resulting in lots of time spent editing and even at times abandoning Tweets before sending. With the expanded character count, this problem was massively reduced – that number dropped to only 1% of Tweets running up against the limit.
Aliza Rosen, Twitter Product Manager
Twitter noted that during a test, the length of tweets quickly returned to its terse style, but with few tweeters bumping up against the limit. “We saw when people needed to use more than 140 characters, they Tweeted more easily and more often. But importantly, people Tweeted below 140 most of the time and the brevity of Twitter remained,” said Rosen.
So, I guess we’ll all be fine, but what does this mean for the Tweeter-in-Chief and posterity? Will some future historian performing data analytics pick up on the change in length?
Will Trumpish remain its own special language? Will Sad! become So Sad! And was cofeveve an acronym he can now spell out for us?
LinkedIn recently began supporting video uploads which begin playing silently when they appear in members’ feeds. Videos may run up to ten minutes, though LinkedIn recommends lengths of fewer than five minutes. As with LinkedIn posts, members will also receive analytics on views, likes, shares, and top viewing markets. The new feature provides B2B marketers with a business focused platform on which they can post corporate announcements, executive thought leadership pieces, and corporate event videos.
Business Insider found that LinkedIn is considered the most trustworthy of the social media platforms with people deeming it best at protecting privacy (55%), least likely to display deceptive content (55%), and safest network for posts and participation (43%).
LinkedIn will also be passing along viewer details such as employer and title for the top viewers.
“Analytics about where video viewers work and what they do present substantial opportunities for networking, recruiting, generating sales leads, and so on. For example, executives can announce a new product or service and then dive into their audience analytics to build up a list of prospects; opinion leaders discussing a pressing trend will have more tools for growing their followers; job-seekers can post videos with an eye on courting recruiters or a company’s attention, or vice versa. All these scenarios pave the way for LinkedIn to upgrade free members onto premium tiers, where more advanced customer relationship management (CRM) tools are available.”
Robert Elder, Business Insider, “LinkedIn Video Sharing Could Be a Revelation”
Video should help address user engagement issues. As of Q3 2016 (their last public quarter), only 23% of users engaged with the platform each month, resulting in an average daily engagement of only two minutes. Consumer platforms have much higher daily engagement rates with Snapchat at thirty minutes and Facebook at fifty.
In other news, LinkedIn released a Windows 10 live alerts app which displays new messages, trending stories, profile views, and other LinkedIn-related alerts. The service supports 22 languages.
Thus, firms can identify unexpected visitor segments. “With these insights, you can craft new marketing content designed to better resonate with that audience,” LinkedIn stated.
Campaign insights are also displayed as new hover cards which provide budget and performance data for other advertisers and recommends how to boost performance.
New metrics include Sponsored Content shared by members, details on social actions, and better file export and data options.
“The three new advertiser data tools optimize your use of LinkedIn ads, making sure you have maximized social ROI,” observed Francis Rey in SocialBarrel. “Sponsored Content continues to drive most of the company’s ad revenue. With more than 500 million professional members on the platform, LinkedIn already filters a unique audience for your business. You only need to tap into it and take advantage.”
Rey also noted that “While Facebook is still beyond reach in social ads, the social network caters to all audiences. Meanwhile, LinkedIn focuses on professionals, with an entirely different purpose.”
LinkedIn hit the half billion member mark, continuing its pace of adding 50 million members every nine months. LinkedIn also supports ten million job listings and over nine million company profiles. Members continue to post 100,000 articles per week. However, the active monthly user rate remains around 25%.
In comparison, Facebook has 1.8 billion members and Twitter has 328 million. The top five countries are the United States (138 million), India (42 million), China (31 million), Brazil (29 million), and United Kingdom (23 million).
LinkedIn published connection data by country and region for the first time with the top five most connected countries (i.e. average member connections) listed as the UAE, Netherlands, Singapore, UK, and Denmark. UAE profiles average 211 connections. By metro area, London leads in average connections with 307 per member followed by Amsterdam, San Francisco, Jakarta, and Milan. Staffing and recruiting is LinkedIn’s most connected industry (unsurprisingly as the firm’s largest revenue source is their Talent Solutions products), and human relations its most connected job function.
LinkedIn connectivity rates by job function and level indicate a strong focus on staffing, consulting, and PE/VC roles.
The top five industries are all highly networked occupations including staffing and recruiting, VC/PE, human resources, management consulting, and online media. With respect to job functions, product management was the number two most connected occupation after human resources. It was surprising to see that sales reps did not even make the top five (outside of Business Development which is a senior level mix of partnership, licensing, and relationship management), but product managers had very high connectivity. Of course, the sales function would span both junior and senior sales reps along with business and consumer sales, while product management consists of more mid and upper-level management.
“The impact of half a billion professionals connecting and communicating is very real, and very accessible to anyone who wants to take part today,” said Aatif Awan, LinkedIn’s VP of growth and international products. “We’re excited to think about the potential of what a highly connected global community of professionals can do, and the value that is created for every member of the global workforce.”
LinkedIn, which is operated as an autonomous division within Microsoft, has over 10,000 employees.
LinkedIn recently introduced their new Storylines feature parallel to the LinkedIn feed. StoryLines are “curated interest-based feeds that surface developing stories to help you discover and discuss news, ideas, and diverse perspectives from the largest group of professionals, publishers and editorial voices ever assembled.”
Articles are based upon information LinkedIn has about each reader such as their industry. StoryLines are intended to combine industry expertise with individual network commentary. A unique hashtag makes “it easy for you to join the conversation and add your own take on the issue.”
LinkedIn emphasized that StoryLines promotes a diversity of opinions and sources. “Each story includes multiple perspectives, ranging from news publishers and influencers, to people in your network, so that you can easily weigh up diverse opinions”
StoryLines are curated via a combination of editorial curation and algorithmic filters. When stories break, an editor writes a summary and identifies diverse sources. An algorithm then adds additional member commentary. This approach ensures a multiplicity of views that pull members out of “filter bubbles” which would otherwise reinforce current views and biases. Topics will be business related
“I don’t want just one point of view”
LinkedIn VP of Product Tomer Cohen
Unlike Facebook, LinkedIn believes it can avoid the problems of “fake news.” Inaccurate content that is intentionally deceptive, including fake news, is not acceptable on our site,” said VP of Product Tomer Cohen. “Our combination of algorithms and editors creates an experience where trending news is validated by editorial to ensure that it is professional and comes from trusted sources.”
Cohen added, “The content members write and share on LinkedIn becomes part of their professional identity — it can be seen by their boss, colleagues, and potential business partners. Promoting fake news can damage your reputation, and there is no hiding behind anonymity on LinkedIn.”
Other features include related stories and follow options for topical experts.
The new feature is being rolled out to US members and then will expand internationally.
LinkedIn mobile also added feed personalization tools which will soon be available via desktop. Amongst the filters are options to follow companies, industry leaders, and publications. Users can also hide posts, and unfollow people and companies. Unfollowing people allows users to retain connections without seeing the connections posts.
LinkedIn has struggled to customize their feed for users, but StoryLines sounds like a smart innovation. By creating a curated trending topic category and placing it to the right of the feed, they can provide relevant content and discussions without it overwhelming the user feed. Furthermore, by curating a set of diverse viewpoints, members are provided with a broader set of perspectives.
Since the beginning of the year, I have noticed an improvement in LinkedIn’s feed. Gone are the eye candy stories from Business Insider covering bots and bikes. Also, there are fewer viral stories about enterprising individuals overcoming hardship. Instead, they have done a better job of surfacing posts from my connections and articles in my field.
The launch of Sales Navigator Enterprise (covered last week) was another indicator that they are focusing more on the Professional side of Professional Social Networking.
Owler rolled out a new Insights feature which highlights data changes such as significant increases in press coverage, blogging volume, and CEO approval. CEO approval ratings are based upon community feedback. Additional insights are in development.
For some reason, sales intelligence vendors have never properly understood social selling and how to integrate social media into their products. This has long amazed me. Instead of building an integrated social media viewing tool with sharing and feedback, they all seem to nibble around the edges. You’ll find social hyperlinks directly from company or contact profiles, but these simply window out to the social media site. Also fairly common is the inclusion of corporate blogs into their news and sales trigger feeds, but fully integrated social media tools have yet to be offered by vendors.
The closest any of them have come is InsideView which added a Buzz Tab about five years ago to its InsideView for Sales product. The Buzz Tab provides a consolidated view of blogs, Facebook, and Twitter feeds. However, the social content remains segregated from their other discovery tools and the population of Facebook and Twitter feeds is limited. Other social tools include a Who Knows Who “Six Degrees” tool and the inclusion of Personal Tweets from business executives in their alerts.
There are also a set of social selling tools that focus on social media, blogs, and news but which are light on company and contact information. As these tools improve, one of the sales intelligence vendors is going to make a build vs. buy decision and either OEM the upcoming service or buy a social selling service outright.
What tools such as Artesian Software, Owler, Contify, and Trapit do isn’t revolutionary. They basically provide a unified view of news and social content. Users can filter the feeds and interact with the posts. If a free service such as Owler can build such functionality, why can’t the sales intelligence vendors? Core functionality could provide the following features:
A deep set of direct links for companies and executives to LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, G+, etc.
A unified view of the corporate social media content across Twitter, Facebook, SlideShare, YouTube, Vimeo, corporate blogs, business blogs, etc. This view would be easily filterable by source, date, keyword, etc.
Social Media Metrics for a company charted over time. If the company is also selling into the marketing department, then comparative metrics should be available.
When filtering Twitter, allow the user to see both the Tweets from a company and mentions (these are separate options).
Support basic widgets from the major social media vendors. These are small applets that display key statistics along with a brief description and logo/headshot.
Allow any news article, sales trigger, or social media post to be shared via social media, enterprise social (e.g. Chatter, Yammer), and email.
Support expanded alerts that include targeted social media alongside sales triggers. Thus, an alert could consist of the half dozen most important sales trigger topics, Twitter posts from the company, Blog headlines, and YouTube / Vimeo uploads.
Executive alerts based upon social media posts and news mentions.
Who Know Who Six degree tools are also worth considering, but this functionality is so well locked up by LinkedIn that relationship discovery tools have remained a standalone category. Amongst Sales Intelligence vendors, only InsideView and DueDil Connect have built relationship finder tools in competition with LinkedIn.
To be fair, the sales intelligence vendors all understood early on that they needed to work with LinkedIn. Most of them adopted the LinkedIn widget or the LinkedIn API to provide relationship and executive intelligence into their service. But then LinkedIn decided it was going to offer its own sales intelligence service called Sales Navigator and began blocking sales intelligence vendor access to LinkedIn. Since then, with the exception of InsideView, the sales intelligence firms have done little to integrate social content into their services. Hopefully, the vendors begin to see this gap in their offerings and begin to address it.
Microsoft ($MSFT) put in a $26.2 billion cash bid for professional social networking company LinkedIn ($LNKD) yesterday. The deal is the largest transaction of the Satya Nadella era and represents a fifty percent premium over LinkedIn’s Friday closing price. The deal provides Microsoft an entrée into professional social networking, enterprise recruiting, and learning and development (Lynda.com). The deal also brings LinkedIn Sales Navigator into Microsoft’s enterprise product line.
Microsoft benefited from a dip in LinkedIn’s stock price earlier this year when the firm provided soft guidance for fiscal year 2016. Although the stock has rebounded some following a recent strong earnings report, the bid is below LinkedIn’s stock price at the beginning of the year.
The deal is expected to close later this year. Both boards have already approved the offer. Regulatory approval is required in the US, EU, Canada, and Brazil with the firm “confident” in approval.
LinkedIn Chairman Reid Hoffman called the transaction a “re-founding moment” for LinkedIn, which went public in May 2011.
Jeff Wiener will continue as the CEO of LinkedIn with no changes in the firm’s organizational structure. He will report directly to Nadella. LinkedIn will continue as an independent brand and product line but will move to integrate the social network and its products with Microsoft Office and Dynamics. Nadella is looking to accelerate LinkedIn’s growth rate while “partnering on product integration plans with the Office 365 and Dynamics teams.”
LinkedIn will be rolled into Microsoft’s productivity and business processes segment, which includes Office and Office 365.
One of the merger’s goals is to provide “a professional’s profile everywhere.” Microsoft noted that professional data is scattered in disparate silos which are often outdated and incomplete, but that “in the future, a professional’s profile will be unified and the right data at the right time will surface in an app, whether Outlook, Skype, Office, or elsewhere.”
“Now you have the ability whenever you’re looking up a contact not only to see that contact with the information that’s contained in active directory, but you can get at the full richness of their information in the professional network and who are all the others in their professional network, so that is sort of what we mean by the social fabric of your digital work and Office 365,” said Nadella.
Microsoft is also looking to leverage LinkedIn’s newsfeed service which they built upon the Newsle and Pulse acquisitions. Microsoft told investors that “since information lives in silos, professionals miss relevant news and waste time. In the future, the newsfeed will be the place to go for every professional to stay connected with the happenings in their network, industry, and profession. Beyond all this, the feed will be constantly informed and tailored to the happenings at work like the meeting coming up and projects underway.”
The intelligent newsfeed will increase membership, monthly active users, and ad revenue.
Likewise, Microsoft anticipates an improved digital assistant as Cortana leverages LinkedIn professional and news intelligence. “Just imagine you’re walking into a meeting and Cortana now wakes up and tells you about the people you’re meeting for the first time, but tells you all the things that you want to know before walking in and meeting someone, because you have the access to the professional network. Cortana is about knowing everything about you, your organization, the work and now the professional network,” said Nadella. “So really being able to reason about all of that and be your personal digital assistant, that’s truly the best professional digital assistance is a fantastic opportunity.”
Microsoft Dynamics sales reps will benefit from a direct connection with LinkedIn Sales Navigator allowing them to engage in social selling. The firm told investors, “this will transform the sales cycle with actionable insights and the ability for each seller to build deeper relationships with prospects and customers – all to accelerate results.”
Other end user benefits include improved “organizational insights and transformation” via LinkedIn Recruiter and “just in time social learning” via Lynda.
Nadella told Microsoft employees that the merger expands market opportunities for Microsoft:
We are in pursuit of a common mission centered on empowering people and organizations. Along with the new growth in our Office 365 commercial and Dynamics businesses this deal is key to our bold ambition to reinvent productivity and business processes. Think about it: How people find jobs, build skills, sell, market and get work done and ultimately find success requires a connected professional world. It requires a vibrant network that brings together a professional’s information in LinkedIn’s public network with the information in Office 365 and Dynamics…As these experiences get more intelligent and delightful, the LinkedIn and Office 365 engagement will grow. And in turn, new opportunities will be created for monetization through individual and organization subscriptions and targeted advertising.
The merger will make business professionals more productive while “reinventing selling, marketing and talent management business processes.”
The Economic Graph
Microsoft published the following summary of “The Professional World” covered by Microsoft and LinkedIn:
Microsoft sees the acquisition as an opportunity to merge the Microsoft and LinkedIn Graphs. In a presentation to the market, Microsoft stated that “today, all the information a professional needs to be successful lives in silos. By connecting the world’s leading professional cloud and the professional network, we can create more connected, intelligent and productive experiences. We also have the opportunity to accelerate the realization of the Economic Graph.”
The Economic Graph is LinkedIn’s BHAG (Big, Hairy, Audacious Goal). A good BHAG should be viewed as internally achievable even if others view it as simply fanciful. Furthermore, a good BHAG provides a long-term vision and mission for framing business decisions and motivating employees.
In March 2015, Weiner said that the Economic Graph’s goal is to “create economic opportunity for every member of the global workforce” of over 3 billion people and 780 million “professionals, knowledge workers and students” by capturing broad economic information including employees, companies, universities, jobs, skills, etc.
Other elements of the graph include a “profile for every company in the world”. Weiner sized this at 60 million to 70 million companies “if you include small and medium-size businesses.”
Beyond people and companies, the economic graph would “be a digital representation of every job available in the world — that would be full-time, temporary, for profit and volunteer” along with “a digital representation for every skill required to obtain one of those jobs offered by one of those companies.”
“When you combine Microsoft’s corporate graph with LinkedIn’s professional graph we think we’re going to be able to take a very substantial leap forward in terms of the realization of our vision, which is creating economic opportunity for every member of the global workforce, and we’re going to do that through the development of the world’s first economic graph,” said Weiner. “Just as we have changed the way the world connects to opportunity, this relationship with Microsoft, and the combination of their cloud and LinkedIn’s network, now gives us a chance to also change the way the world works,” Weiner said. “For the last 13 years, we’ve been uniquely positioned to connect professionals to make them more productive and successful, and I’m looking forward to leading our team through the next chapter of our story.”
“Based on the income statement and balance sheet, the numbers look high for an acquisition,” Patrick Moorhead of Moor Insight and Strategy said. “I see the potential for a beefed up business social media service which is more than a resume posting service as it is today. I can envision a service where businesses more freely collaborate, leveraging online versions of Office 365, Skype for business and OneDrive.”
Mark Vickery of D.M. Martins Research views the transaction as one that wraps sales and recruiting professionals within the Microsoft-LinkedIn product universe:
At an individual level, it starts with pre-professional networking and the job search, areas in which LinkedIn has been dominant as the leading professional network platform for a while now. But then it continues with professional development, through LinkedIn’s Lynda and, most importantly, with the integration of productivity tools, including Microsoft’s Office, SharePoint and Skype. A sales representative at Company XYZ, for example, who originally found his or her job through LinkedIn, could not only generate sales leads through the same platform, but also manage calendar (MS Office), meetings (Skype), and share documents (SharePoint) more seamlessly, provided that the many tools are properly integrated, without ever having to leave the Microsoft umbrella of products and services – all with a single sign on. In the end, the hypothetical salesperson could very well have an all-Microsoft experience in the office, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., and never have to seek (or encourage his or her employer to seek) workplace productivity solutions elsewhere.
Forbes contributor Grant Feller said that calling LinkedIn a social network would be akin to calling Google a search engine. Both descriptions are accurate but miss the true value of the firms. “LinkedIn is a content company. In effect, Microsoft has just bought one of the world’s most influential, specialised, highly read, constantly-updated (and, it must be said, occasionally annoying) digital media companies around,” said Feller. “The real value of the site is as a content-publishing platform in which key executives can expand their networks, their influence, their fame, their knowledge, their personas and their opportunities for a better-paid job by providing original content.”
Feller continued that while LinkedIn may at times be annoying or advertorial, LinkedIn produces much of its content. “It doesn’t just steal and redirect, though it does perform those acts admirably – it allows users to create material that intellectually nourishes.” However, Feller warned that Microsoft needs to protect LinkedIn from “a creep towards the banalities of Facebook” and improve the user experience.
Mitch Kapor, founder of Lotus Development Corp. and partner of venture firm Kapor Capital, noted that Microsoft has a mixed record with integrating acquisitions. “Sadly, history has shown [synergies] are very difficult to realize when two big companies combine, especially to the extent LinkedIn is remaining an independent fiefdom within the Microsoft empire.”
A general concern is that Microsoft is probably overpaying for LinkedIn. Some analysts also questioned the mixing of a non-profitable growth company with a slower growth cash flow company.
Moody’s has placed Microsoft’s ‘AAA’ credit rating under review as Microsoft will be issuing new debt.
Note: I hold no positions in Microsoft and LinkedIn and have no professional relationships with either firm.